Here are some thoughts about the questions to ask and answer to get a high-level understanding of how a business works.

Understanding the Business Domain​
  • Who is the customer?

  • What is the product?

  • How is the product sold?

  • (online, phone, in-person sales)

  • What is the cost structure of the product? (subscription, pay-per-unit, etc)

  • Where does the money go?

  • How do we fulfill or distribute the product?

  • How do we produce or service the product?

  • How do we support the customer?

  • How do we market the product?

  • What partners do we work with to do business?

  • How do we manage these relationships?

  • What information does the organization manage?

  • Who is responsible for creating, updating, and retiring information?

  • What systems are used to manage the information.

How is Customer Records Created? 
  • Who is responsible for creating customer records? Common options include:


  • Salesperson

  • Customer (common in self-service organizations where customers 

  • register and make purchases online)

  • Customer Support

  • Marketing Representative

  • Accounting


Analysis Tip
For this exercise, it can be very useful to have ready-at-hand examples of records 
that represent a wide range of individuals and/or organizations that may be 
considered customers. Discussing specific examples can take the discussion out of 
the hypothetical and lead to clarification of precise rules.


  • Is there any approval process for creating a customer record?

  • Is another piece of information used to generate a customer record?
    (A common example would be a lead.)

  • What information is needed to create a customer record? Common options include:


  • Customer Name

  • Customer Billing Address 

  • Customer Shipping Address (may need multiple)

  • Customer Phone Number

  • Customer Email Address

  • Contacts (when a customer is an organization, there may be multiple contacts, each with their own name, email address, phone number, etc.)


  • What information about customer preferences is added and maintained?
    Consider the following examples:


  • Shipping Methods

  • Product Choices

  • Product Configurations (See Purchase Product or Service.)

  • Information Views (for example, the reports to show on a dashboard or 

  • the number of results to show for search)

  • Price Range

  • Invoice Type

  • Contact Days and/or Times

  • Contact Method (phone, email, etc.)


  • What happens if required information is missing from the customer record or is provided in an invalid format?

  • Does anyone else need to know when a new customer is created? If so, how soon do they need to know?

  • What information do they need?

  • What do they do with the customer information?

Value Stream Mapping of data

LEAN mapping in Production & Administration


Værdistrømsanalyse i Lean Produktion
En værdistrømsanalyse i produktion foretages oftest via tidstagning, optælling, osv. Hermed får vi bedre styr på vare og data flowet, så det er muligt at gøre processerne mere stabile, osv.

Derfor anbefales det, at man kaster sig ud i en “rigtig værdistrømsanalyse”. Med analyse af tider, lagre, lagertider, osv. i produktionen.


Værdistrømsanalyse i Lean Administration
En værdistrømsanalyse i administration er typisk lidt sværere end i en produktion. Ikke fordi processerne er sværere, men fordi vi sjældent har kortlagt data flowet i en administration.


Det kræver en høj grad af involvering og videndeling fra organisationens side. I LEAN administration anbefales det derfor ikke at begynde med de “rigtige værdistrømsanalyser”.


I stedet bør man starte med mindre fokus på tidsspørgsmål – og bruge mere tid på input, output, ventetider, data flow, retur forløb, osv. Derfor anbefales en “Brown Paper” eller “Svømmebane” metode.


NB! Ofte følger der en vigtig opgave efter en værdistrømsanalyse i administration – en arbejdsbeskrivelse! Det nye flow skal beskrives, så processen kan gentages - igen og igen...

Billede af en Brown Paper mapping ses ovenfor.

Checklist: Outside-In Service Design approach